Polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women, affecting 5-10% of the female population.
Although many women believe they have PCOS, there are a series of criteria that must be met to diagnose this pathology. The most used are the Rotterdam criteria, according to which, to diagnose a PCOS, at least 2 of the following 3 symptoms/signs are necessary:
- Oligo and/or anovulation
- Clinical and/or laboratory signs of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism (increased body hair with a typically male distribution).
- Ultrasound compatible with polycystic ovaries, according to which at least one of the two ovaries must have 12 or more antral follicles and/or present an increased ovarian volume. Let's not forget that this criterion by itself is not diagnostic of PCOS.
A priori, the diagnosis can be made based on the patient's symptoms and physical examination, although other conditions that may mimic PCOS symptoms such as thyroid disorders, adrenal hyperplasia, hyperprolactinemia, etc., should be ruled out.
Early diagnosis is important, if possible in adolescence, because these women are associated with other types of symptoms and risks, such as insulin resistance, which predisposes to obesity and cardiovascular risk, as well as an increased risk of developing diabetes .